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Sex Chromosome Evolution, Heterochiasmy, and Physiological QTL in the Salmonid Brook Charr Salvelinus fontinalis

Sutherland, Ben J.G. and Rico, Ciro and Audet, Céline and Bernatchez, Louis (2017) Sex Chromosome Evolution, Heterochiasmy, and Physiological QTL in the Salmonid Brook Charr Salvelinus fontinalis. G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics, 7 . pp. 2749-2762. ISSN 2160-1836

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    Abstract

    Whole-genome duplication (WGD) can have large impacts on genome evolution, and much remains unknown about these impacts. This includes the mechanisms of coping with a duplicated sex determination system and whether this has an impact on increasing the diversity of sex determination mechanisms. Other impacts include sexual conflict, where alleles having different optimums in each sex can result in sequestration of genes into nonrecombining sex chromosomes. Sex chromosome development itself may involve sex-specific recombination rate (i.e., heterochiasmy), which is also poorly understood. The family Salmonidae is a model system for these phenomena, having undergone autotetraploidization and subsequent rediploidization in most of the genome at the base of the lineage. The salmonid master sex determining gene is known, and many species have nonhomologous sex chromosomes, putatively due to transposition of this gene. In this study, we identify the sex chromosome of Brook Charr Salvelinus fontinalis and compare sex chromosome identities across the lineage (eight species and four genera). Although nonhomology is frequent, homologous sex chromosomes and other consistencies are present in distantly related species, indicating probable convergence on specific sex and neo-sex chromosomes. We also characterize strong heterochiasmy with 2.7-fold more crossovers in maternal than paternal haplotypes with paternal crossovers biased to chromosome ends. When considering only rediploidized chromosomes, the overall heterochiasmy trend remains, although with only 1.9-fold more recombination in the female than the male. Y chromosome crossovers are restricted to a single end of the chromosome, and this chromosome contains a large interspecific inversion, although its status between males and females remains unknown. Finally, we identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 21 unique growth, reproductive, and stress-related phenotypes to improve knowledge of the genetic architecture of these traits important to aquaculture and evolution.

    Item Type: Journal Article
    Additional Information: This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
    Uncontrolled Keywords: heterochiasmy, salmon, sex chromosomes, QTL, whole-genome duplication, Genetics of Sex
    Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history > QH301 Biology
    Q Science > QH Natural history > QH426 Genetics
    Divisions: Faculty of Science, Technology and Environment (FSTE) > School of Marine Studies
    Depositing User: Fulori Nainoca
    Date Deposited: 14 Aug 2017 11:34
    Last Modified: 14 Aug 2017 11:34
    URI: http://repository.usp.ac.fj/id/eprint/10060
    UNSPECIFIED

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