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Potentially toxic elemental contamination in Wainivesi River, Fiji impacted by gold - mining activities using chemometric tools and SOM analysis

Kumar, Satendra and Islam, Abu and Hasanuzzaman, Md. and Salam, Roquia and Islam, Md. Saiful and Khan, Rahat and Rahman, M Safur and Pal, Subodh and Ali, Mir and Idris, Abubakr and Gustave, Williamson and Elbeltagi, Ahmed (2022) Potentially toxic elemental contamination in Wainivesi River, Fiji impacted by gold - mining activities using chemometric tools and SOM analysis. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, NA . NA. ISSN 0944-1344

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Potentially toxic element (PTE) contamination in Wainivesi River, Fiji triggered by gold-mining activities is a major public health concern deserving attention. However, chemometric approaches and pattern recognition of PTEs in surface water and sediment are yet hardly studied in Pacific Island countries like Fijian urban River. In this study, twenty-four sediment and eight water sampling sites from the Wainivesi River, Fiji were explored to evaluate the spatial pattern, eco-environmental pollution, and source apportionment of PTEs. This analysis was done using an integrated approach of self-organizing map (SOM), principle component analysis (PCA), hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and indexical approaches. The PTE average concentration is decreasing in the order of Fe > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cr > Cu > Mn > Co > Cd for water and Fe > Zn > Pb > Mn > Cr > Ni > Cu > Co > Cd for sediment, respectively. Outcomes of eco-environmental indices including contamination and enrichment factors, and geo-accumulation index differed spatially indicated that majority of the sediment sites were highly polluted by Zn, Cd, and Ni. Cd and Ni contents can cause both ecological and human health risks. According to PCA, both mixed sources (geogenic and anthropogenic such as mine wastes discharge and farming activities) of PTEs for water and sediment were identified in the study area. The SOM analysis identified three spatial patterns, e.g., Cr–Co–Zn–Mn, Fe–Cd, and Ni–Pb–Cu in water and Zn–Cd–Cu–Mn, Cr–Ni and Fe, Co–Pb in sediment. Spatial distribution of entropy water quality index (EWQI) values depicted that northern and northwestern areas possess “poor” to “extremely poor” quality water. The entropy weights indicated Zn, Cd, and Cu as the major pollutants in deteriorating the water quality. This finding provides a baseline database with eco-environmental and health risk measures for the Wainivesi river contamination.

Item Type: Journal Article
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
T Technology > TD Environmental technology. Sanitary engineering
Divisions: School of Agriculture, Geography, Environment, Ocean and Natural Sciences (SAGEONS)
Depositing User: Ms Shalni Sanjana
Date Deposited: 31 Jan 2022 01:01
Last Modified: 31 Jan 2022 01:01

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