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Distribution, sources, and pollution levels of toxic metal(loid)s in an urban river (Ichamati), Bangladesh using SOM and PMF modeling with GIS tool

Nasiruddin, Md and Islam, Abu R. and Siddique, Md A. and Hasanuzaman, Md and Hassan, Md M and Akbor, Md A. and Hasan, Mehedi and Islam, Md S. and Khan, Rahat and Amin, Md A. and Pal, Subodh and Idris, Abubakr and Kumar, Satendra (2022) Distribution, sources, and pollution levels of toxic metal(loid)s in an urban river (Ichamati), Bangladesh using SOM and PMF modeling with GIS tool. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, NA . NA. ISSN 0944-1344

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Indexical assessment coupled with a self-organizing map (SOM) and positive matrix factorization (PMF) modeling of toxic metal(loid)s in sediment and water of the aquatic environment provides valuable information from the environmental management perspective. However, in northwest Bangladesh, indexical and modeling assessments of toxic metal(loid)s in surface water and sediment are still rare. Toxic metal(loid)s were measured in sediment and surface water from an urban polluted river (Ichamati) in northwest Bangladesh using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer to assess distribution, pollution levels, sources, and potential environmental risks to the aquatic environment. The mean concentrations (mg/kg) of metal(loid)s in water are as follows: Fe (871) > Mn (382) > Cr (72.4) > Zn (34.2) > Co (20.8) > Pb (17.6) > Ni (16.7) > Ag (14.9) > As (9.0) > Cu (5.63) > Cd (2.65), while in sediment, the concentration follows the order, Fe (18,725) > Mn (551) > Zn (213) > Cu (47.6) > Cr (30.2) > Ni (24.2) > Pb (23.8) > Co (9.61) > As (8.23) > Cd (0.80) > Ag (0.60). All metal concentrations were within standard guideline values except for Cr and Pb for water and Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, and As for sediment. The outcomes of eco-environmental indices, including contamination and enrichment factors and geo-accumulation index, differed spatially, indicating that most of the sediment sites were moderately to highly polluted by Cd, Zn, and As. Cd and Zn content can trigger ecological risks. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) model recognized three probable sources of sediment, i.e., natural source (49.39%), industrial pollution (19.72%), and agricultural source (30.92%), and three possible sources of water, i.e., geogenic source (45.41%), industrial pollution (22.88%), and industrial point source (31.72%), respectively. SOM analysis identified four spatial patterns, e.g., Fe–Mn-Ag, Cd–Cu, Cr-Pb-As-Ni, and Zn–Co in water and three patterns, e.g., Mn-Co–Ni-Cr, Cd-Cu-Pb–Zn, and As-Fe-Ag in sediment. The spatial distribution of entropy water quality index values shows that the southwestern area possesses “poor” quality water. Overall, the levels of metal(loid) pollution in the investigated river surpassed a critical threshold, which might have serious consequences for the river’s aquatic biota and human health in the long run.

Item Type: Journal Article
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GC Oceanography
Q Science > QD Chemistry
Divisions: School of Agriculture, Geography, Environment, Ocean and Natural Sciences (SAGEONS)
Depositing User: Ms Shalni Sanjana
Date Deposited: 24 Oct 2022 00:02
Last Modified: 24 Oct 2022 00:02

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