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Enzyme activity demonstrates multiple pathways of innate immunity in Indo-Pacific anthozoans

Palmer, C.V. and Bythell, John C. and Willis, B.L. (2012) Enzyme activity demonstrates multiple pathways of innate immunity in Indo-Pacific anthozoans. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 279 (1743). pp. 3879-3887. ISSN 0962-8452

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Coral reefs are threatened by increasing levels of coral disease and the functional loss of obligate algal symbionts (bleaching). Levels of immunity relate directly to susceptibility to these threats; however, our understanding of fundamental aspects of coral immunology is lacking.We show that three melanin synthesis pathway components (mono-phenoloxidase, ortho-diphenoloxidase (tyrosinase-type pathway) and paradiphenoloxidase (laccase-type pathway)) are present in both their active (phenoloxidase, PO) and inactive (prophenoloxidase, PPO) forms across a diverse range of 22 species of healthy Indo-Pacific anthozoans. We also demonstrate transglutaminase activity of the coagulation cascade for, to our knowledge, the first time in a coral. Melanin-synthesis enzyme activities varied among taxa, although they were generally lowest in the coral family Acroporidae and highest in the Poritidae and Oculinidae. Inactive tyrosinasetype activity (PPO) and active laccase-type activity (PO) correlate with taxonomic patterns in disease resistance, whereas the converse pattern in activity levels correlates with bleaching resistance. Overall, we demonstrate the presence of several melanin-synthesis pathways in Indo-Pacific corals, co-regulation among some pathway components, and highlight their potential roles in coral health.

Item Type: Journal Article
Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GC Oceanography
Divisions: Office of the PVC (R&I)
Depositing User: Ms Shalni Sanjana
Date Deposited: 03 Oct 2012 00:47
Last Modified: 09 Jan 2017 20:42

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