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Globalisation and cultural change in Pacific Island countries: the role of tourism

Tolkach, Denis and Pratt, Stephen (2021) Globalisation and cultural change in Pacific Island countries: the role of tourism. Tourism Geographies, 23 (3). pp. 371-396. ISSN 1461-6688

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    Abstract

    Globalisation is often perceived as a threat to the preservation of traditional cultures. There are various approaches to understanding the impact of globalisation on culture. Pieterse’s three paradigms of globalisation and culture, clash of civilisations, McDonaldisation and hybridisation, provide a useful theoretical foundation for understanding how tourism impacts culture. The three paradigms of globalisation assess cultural change holistically. Cultural change in Pacific Island countries (PIC) due to globalisation, especially tourism’s role, in this change, is the focus. Data are sourced via interviews with various tourism stakeholders from Fiji, Tonga and Cook Islands. Tourism is only one driver of cultural change. Other forces include mobilities, migration, diaspora, geopolitical change, technology and popular culture. Examples of the clash of civilisations paradigm include geopolitical changes resulting in different tourism markets and the imitation effect from diaspora and tourists. Commodification of cultural performance for both tourist and local consumption and use of popular culture, for example the animated film Moana, are viewed as McDonaldisation of culture. Participants’ reflections on ongoing evolution of culture including the integration of PIC into the world economy, through increased mobilities and technologies, exemplify hybridisation. In general, the three PIC are found to be culturally resilient. Culture of these PIC is resilient with Pacific Islanders maintaining agency over change, however the impact of various globalisation factors demand effort in preserving culture in the long term.

    Item Type: Journal Article
    Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GV Recreation Leisure
    H Social Sciences > H Social Sciences (General)
    Divisions: School of Business and Management (SBM)
    Depositing User: Fulori Nainoca - Waqairagata
    Date Deposited: 17 Jun 2021 13:21
    Last Modified: 17 Jun 2021 13:22
    URI: http://repository.usp.ac.fj/id/eprint/12804
    UNSPECIFIED

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