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Preliminary assessment of heavy metals in surface water and sediment in Nakuvadra-Rakiraki River, Fiji using indexical and chemometric approaches

Kumar, Satendra and Islam, Abu R. and Hasanuzzaman, Md. and Salam, Roquia and Khan, Rahat and Islam, Md. S. (2021) Preliminary assessment of heavy metals in surface water and sediment in Nakuvadra-Rakiraki River, Fiji using indexical and chemometric approaches. Journal of Environmental Management, 298 . NA. ISSN 0301-4797

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    Abstract

    River water and sediment embody environmental characteristics that give valuable environmental management information. However, indexical and chemometric appraisal of heavy metals (HMs) in river water and sediment is very scarce in Island countries including Fiji. In this research, forty-five sediment and fifteen water samples from the Nakuvadra-Rakiraki River, Fiji were analyzed for appraising spatial distribution, pollution, and source identification of selected heavy metals (HMs) using the coupling tools of self-organizing map (SOM), composi�tional data analysis (CDA), and sediment and water quality indices. The mean concentration of HMs increased in the order of Cd < Co < Pb < Cu < Zn < Ni < Cr < Mn < Fe for sediment and Cd < Pb < Cu < Ni < Zn < Co < Cr < Fe < Mn for water, respectively. The outcomes of the enrichment factor, geo-accumulation index and contamination factor index varied spatially and most of the sediment samples were polluted by Pb, Mn, and Cu. The potential ecological risk recognized Cd, and Pb as ecological and public health risks to the surrounding communities. Based on SOM and CDA, three potential sources (e.g., point, nonpoint and lithological sources) of HMs for sediment and two sources (e.g., geogenic and human-induced sources) of HMs for water were identified. The spatial patterns of EWQI values revealed that the northern and northeast zones of the studied area possess a high degree of water pollution. The entropy weight indicated Ni and Cd as the main pollutants degrading the water quality. This study gives a baseline dataset for combined eco-environmental measures for the river’s water and sediment pollution as well as contributes to an inclusive appraisal of HMs contamination in global rivers.

    Item Type: Journal Article
    Subjects: G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GB Physical geography
    G Geography. Anthropology. Recreation > GE Environmental Sciences
    Q Science > QD Chemistry
    Divisions: School of Agriculture, Geography, Environment, Ocean and Natural Sciences (SAGEONS)
    Depositing User: Ms Shalni Sanjana
    Date Deposited: 11 Aug 2021 13:31
    Last Modified: 11 Aug 2021 13:31
    URI: http://repository.usp.ac.fj/id/eprint/12891
    UNSPECIFIED

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